Grand Junction - Local Delivery Reinvented

Category Archive: Same-day

  1. Uber and Google Team Up on Same-Day Delivery, Shaking Up the Last Mile Landscape

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    Uber has announced that it will provide drivers for Google Express, which has managed its own delivery operations until now. Google will maintain the pricing, the storefront, and the merchant partnerships while Uber provides the drivers through their UberRUSH offering. If this partnership comes to full fruition, it will be a big shift in the last mile logistics / same-day delivery landscape, with huge implications for competitors.

    For Uber this is pure upside, as it accelerates its long-anticipated entry into package delivery. The volume that Uber gains by serving Google is hard-won volume, as matching up supply (orders) and demand (drivers) is expensive and operationally challenging, especially in the early days. But this is offset by the fact that Google essentially took on the cost of creating the market, then handed off the resulting upside (volume) to Uber. And Google will continue to generate even more volume for Uber as long as Google Express keeps working with merchants. Most importantly, Google’s retreat eliminates them as a competitor to Uber for last-mile delivery. Wow, well done Uber.

    For Google, the partnership represents a significant retreat—although it’s clearly not a case of giving up, since Google’s venture arm has invested over $200 million in Uber– and may be an early signal of its changing aspirations in e-commerce. As I said in a post last year, Google Express is an important element in Google’s battle for relevance in e-commerce, and to date it has had an economically unsustainable model. It’s true that by outsourcing to Uber, Google Express is more focused and economically viable. But now that it’s without a proprietary delivery mechanism, will retailers continue to want to sign on with Google Express?

    If I was a retailer, in the long run I’d prefer to work directly with Uber, as that would mean I could potentially serve all of my buyers with last mile delivery—not just the portion buying through Google Express. As UberRUSH expands and Google no longer has a unique (and subsidized) last mile offering, Google may find that interest from merchants wanes. With respect to e-commerce, they could be left on the outside looking in.

    Let’s take a quick look at what this news means for some other winners and losers:


    Postmates – Clearly, Uber’s assault on Postmates is under way. Postmates may struggle to raise its rumored financing at anything other than a down round.

    Deliv – Like Postmates, and even with a recent round of funding that included UPS, Deliv doesn’t have the capital to compete with Uber for drivers and retailers. As a retailer, would you rather spend time integrating Uber or Deliv into your shopping cart?

    UPS and FedEx – Neither have made much of a move into on-demand, but Uber’s creation of a non-union driver force and diversification of its delivery options makes a collision down the road more likely. (And this potential collision is undoubtedly what drove UPS to make its investment in Deliv.)


    Consumers – Uber will be pouring billions into subsidizing package delivery and raising delivery service levels for consumers the same way they did for passenger delivery. We all may benefit from the lower costs and better service.

    Drivers – Although it’s hard to combine passenger and package delivery, independent contract drivers now have new volume—and thus more ways to make money—flowing through their apps.

    There is a long and challenging road ahead for Uber, as I discussed last year, but they look like a hands-down winner in their partnership with Google. Meanwhile, most everyone else now faces a more challenging landscape.

  2. Google Express Is Dying. (If It Can’t Evolve to Better Compete with Amazon)

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    Amazon is increasingly eating Google’s lunch when it comes to eCommerce. Amazon and Google compete in a number of areas, but it is their battle in eCommerce and last mile logistics that potentially has the highest stakes.

    Google is reliant on ads with 90% of its revenue coming from advertising sales, therefore, search traffic is critical to Google. But when it comes to online and mobile retail, Amazon has become the dominant brand to the point that consumers are skipping a Google search, and going right to Amazon every time they want to buy, or even research, a product. In fact, according to Retail Dive, 39% of consumers go directly to Amazon vs. 11% starting with a Google search– a complete reversal from 5 years ago, representing billions in lost revenue for Google.

    In response, Google launched Google Express, which picks up from retailers and delivers directly to consumers. Google’s goal is to add value to as many steps of a typical retail transaction as possible: search for the product with Google; checkout with Google Buy Button; process the payment with Google Wallet; and, get the order delivered with Google Express. Google’s eCommerce strategy is to provide services around eCommerce that will keep consumers coming back, and generate enough business for retail partners so that they help support Google (e.g., provide access to real-time inventory data). If you’ve ever used Google Express, it is terrific– it is consistently on time, vehicles are branded, the drivers are in uniforms and orders are nicely packaged. Unfortunately, Google has a service cost that is 3 or 4 times higher than Amazon’s same day delivery program.

    Amazon has a nearly insurmountable cost advantage on Google. They have incredibly efficient, and increasingly automated, distribution centers, whereas Google must “shop” for orders, no differently than I do, at their retail partners’ stores; they have product margin with which to subsidize their value-add services, whereas Google doesn’t markup it’s retail partners’ products (and it is not clear if they ask for a sales “commission”); and, they have huge daily order volumes, which dramatically lowers delivery cost. I estimate that Amazon’s cost for a same-day delivery to be below $4 per package, while Google’s current cost is closer to $14.

    Google’s high cost basis will improve by as much as 30% as retailers start to pick up the cost of “picking” from their own stores, and as their density and volumes grow. Google also has the ability to monetize eCommerce buyers through Google Wallet and ad sales so they do not need to exactly meet Amazon’s cost basis. However, Google Express still needs to lower costs significantly and there a few fundamental flaws that need to be fixed before they can become sustainable. 

    To date, Google is using a dedicated delivery model, using local delivery and courier companies to run branded vehicles for them that contain only their deliveries. This approach produces a high quality consumer experience, but it prevents Google from driving costs down by comingling their shipments with the 2 billion annual shipments the local delivery industry already does per year. By comingling, Google Express will reduce their tight grip on dictating every element of the service offering, but they will get to a much more sustainable cost basis.

    Comingling with existing volume in the local delivery industry will also allow them to expand more quickly and cost effectively. Instead of opening up new operations and building density (i.e., deliveries within a tight geography), Google Express would work with existing couriers to perform their deliveries and share the burden of the infrastructure and the benefits of density. For confirmation of the effectiveness of this comingling strategy, look no further than Amazon itself, who uses a network of local carriers and comingles over 100 million packages a year.

    If Google Express does not evolve, they run the risk of abandoning a key battle due to unsustainable costs, delaying roll-outs to new markets and even worse, losing the underlying retailers who are increasingly innovating in the last mile on their own. Without their underlying retail partners, they will not only lose the battle in the last mile but also the overall war on eCommerce.

  3. Delivery in 15 Minutes? The Re-emergence of On-Demand Delivery

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    Can you imagine ordering a printer cartridge from Staples online and getting that purchase delivered 15 minutes later? Believe it or not, that super-premium service level once existed in major cities in the U.S., Europe, and Asia. It was called “B15” for bike messenger delivery in 15 minutes.

    In the 1990s, before the widespread use of email and online document exchange, the local delivery industry was delivering all those documents that are now digital: contracts, mortgage paperwork, blueprints, advertising proofs, and banking materials, to name only a few. Competition was intense among local carriers, so service levels started to rise.

    Eventually, local delivery companies started staging a pick-up person inside large buildings that had offices that initiated significant volumes of delivery orders. These pick-up couriers would be immediately dispatched by radio to the floor where the order was ready, pick it up, and head down the elevator to hand off the package(s) to bike messengers or walkers, who headed directly to the recipient’s building. The walker or biker would hand the package to the drop-off courier staged in the recipient building, or deliver it directly themselves, resulting in an incredibly rapid delivery.

    It was high times for the local delivery industry and the peak of on-demand delivery. Every owner and messenger loved the sexy margins that on-demand delivery provided. So it was sad times when on-demand delivery started to decline. The demise of on-demand delivery started with the fax machine, accelerated with email and was complete with Check 21 legislation in 2004 ( Anything that can be electronically transmitted goes by email or fax today. On-demand delivery is now a modest piece of the local delivery market size and B15 is long gone.

    However, e-commerce, rising customer expectations and the emergence of a whole new set of players is signaling a resurgence in on-demand delivery. In San Francisco alone, there are 68 apps that offer rapid local delivery as part of their offering (furniture, alcohol, cookies, etc.).  In Denver there are 11 on-demand marijuana delivery companies currently active. Starbucks, Amazon and Google all have on-demand delivery initiatives.

    Is this a flash in the pan of over exuberant venture capital money or are we at the front end of the re-emergence of on-demand delivery? My bet is we’re seeing the beginning of a long term trend and the market size for local delivery will be dramatically increasing as a result. Amazon sets the standard for e-commerce and they continue to roll-out same day (now available in 11 markets) and on-demand delivery (recently expanded to Miami). So we should expect a lot more retailers, distributors and 3PLs to roll out programs as they look to match this trend towards higher service levels.

    When you couple the incredible amount of venture investment for emerging companies offering on-demand delivery and significant steps by established companies on on-demand delivery, it certainly signals a real re-emergence. Importantly, the fact that customer expectations are changing along the way reinforces that it looks like a trend to stay. 

    Will service levels rise again all the way up to the super premium B15 service level of the 1990s? It could happen a few years down the road, as more and more commerce moves online. In dense urban areas and neighborhoods near shopping malls, the density and distance equation just might match up. With better technology, the emerging use of retail stores as pick-up points and growing delivery volumes, it’s more likely than you think.

  4. eBay Now / Same-day Shuts Down, Who’s Next? Why eBay Bowing Out Does Not Spell the End of the Hype Around Same-Day Delivery

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    eBay recently announced they’re shuttering their same-day delivery offering, eBay Now ( ). Re/code also pointed out that Google is losing some executives in their same-day offering Google Express ( ). Does this  indicate the beginning of the end of the same-day delivery hype? Is Google Express next to bow out? I’m saying no to both questions, and here’s why.   

     eBay Now ran a flawed and expensive delivery model from day one. eBay Now paid their drivers to enter retail stores, purchase an item, and then deliver it, all in less than one hour. That was a very high-cost model, since eBay picked up the entire cost of fulfillment and delivery. The one-hour service level also limited eBay’s ability to reduce costs by building routes and comingling packages. Add in the retrenching efforts at eBay, and it looks like they had the wrong model and no appetite for fixing that model.

    Google Express does share some unsustainable characteristics (they cover the cost of picking inventory out of local stores), but they also have operational and volume advantages that eBay Now never did.  Google Express offers a scheduled same-day delivery which is about 40 percent less expensive than eBay Now’s on-demand offering because they can establish efficient routes.  They also are using their significant heft to work on retail partnerships to eliminate their fulfillment costs and are considering alternative delivery models to lower costs, such as comingling orders with existing local carriers. Google Express is also an important part of Google’s overall e-commerce strategy, as it brings retailers who don’t offer that service into the fold. Expect Google Express to stay in the game with some further changes to improve sustainability.

    As far as the same-day delivery hype, with Amazon relentlessly pushing toward same-day as their standard, rising customer expectations, and continued investment in this space, the hype isn’t going away anytime soon. 

  5. Postmates and the Fallacy of the $1 Delivery

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    San Francisco based start-up Postmates ( recently announced an $80 million round of funding and plans to offer $1.00 on-demand delivery ( ). It’s a good thing they raised more money because they’re going to burn through cash quickly offering 1-hour delivery at that price point. Considering both the steep path from where they’ve built their business  (food delivery to consumers) to their ultimate goal (on-demand package delivery for the masses) and the reality of delivery economics,  a $1 delivery is an impossibility. And let me present my unique same-day credentials: I have designed and implemented high-volume same-day and local delivery programs for huge retailers such as Amazon, IKEA, OfficeMax and Home Depot.

    Postmates assumes that drivers collect tips to supplement their payment from Postmates, which is about $0.80 per $1.00 of delivery fee they collect. It’s highly doubtful drivers will get tips from delivering a package. When was the last time you tipped your UPS driver? This is particularly true in a B2B environment (where most of the current local delivery volume lies). Postmates is applying their current food delivery model, where tipping is the norm, to a package delivery model. Wishful thinking.

    Postmates also mentions the creation of density as their path towards $1.00 delivery nirvana. Even the highest volume, best-run shippers in the world are unable to reduce costs to the point that $1.00 delivery is viable. Amazon, for example, pays couriers about $2.75 per package for their basic same-day delivery program and 2 to 3x higher for the equivalent to Postmates on-demand service level. It seems implausible that Postmates will ever come close to attaining this type of scale and, even if they did, they would still need to heavily subsidize delivery. Postmates would need to collect other fees from retailers, which would be counter to the $1.00 delivery claim, or they would be well down the path to an unsustainable economic model, which their investors are unlikely to support.

    Why is Postmates making this $1.00 delivery offer?          Marketing and PR.

    It’s a highly questionable ploy to entice retailers into conversations and stir up the national media with an outrageous, seemingly impossible (because it really is) claim. This approach runs the risk of alienating potential retailers once the real fees come out and also begs comparison to Kozmo and other silliness, which is not good for their brand or for the tech industry as a whole.

  6. $5.99 for Same-Day Delivery… What’s the Right Price and Service Level?

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    Is that the right price point? Amazon’s version of same-day delivery is “if you order it in the morning, you’ll get it in the afternoon” (at Grand Junction we call that AM/PM same day). AM/PM same day is lower in cost than the one hour or ASAP delivery services you see elsewhere, since it allows for consolidation of multiple orders and the establishment of an efficient route (like a bus ride). One-hour or ASAP delivery requires a direct, immediate response with little room for consolidation (like a taxi ride).

    While Amazon is charging $5.99 per same-day delivery, their actual cost is even lower. With their new forward-deployed warehouses, technology-enabled fulfillment, and tremendous volume, Amazon has the most efficient and high-scale supply chain possible. There is plenty of room for Amazon to drop that price. In fact, Amazon could go as far as giving AM/PM same-day delivery away for free for Prime customers, since the cost for AM/PM same-day is not much more than the cost for the next-day ground delivery they currently give away for free.

    If Amazon commits fully to the new AM/PM same-day service level, imagine their advantage: the highest service level in the market, performed at a price no competitor can match.

  7. Where’s the eCommerce Delivery Choice?

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    Today, consumers have a few options when it comes to how they want their online purchases delivered. The service level choices are typically next-day, second-day, or economy, all of which are offered by FedEx, UPS, and the US Postal Service. Omni-channel retailing, which ties together online shopping and local retail stores, is leading to the emergence of new delivery options. Retailers are also being pushed by eBay, Amazon, and Google. Storefront pickup, hotshot (delivery within a few hours of ordering), AM/PM (order it in the morning, and receive it that same afternoon), and scheduled delivery are all new service-level options that are emerging for consumers.

    Once a retailer ties its local store inventory to online shopping, it’s ready to offer storefront pickup (also called “will call” or “buy online and pick up”). It is also ready to offer a variety of other service levels, all of which are accomplished through local delivery programs. eBay Now offers one-hour delivery, and Google Shopping Express offers an outstanding scheduled delivery experience.

    My bet is that all of these players will eventually offer the more cost-effective AM/PM same-day delivery service and charge a premium for the others.

    How these local delivery programs that leverage local inventory are going to be rolled out remains to be seen. UPS and FedEx do not offer these services and have labor forces and infrastructure that don’t match up well (sort centers, scheduled line hauls, and aircraft are no help in local delivery). Dedicated fleets are a possibility for very large retailers with high online sales volume.

    More likely is the use of the local delivery industry, which already provides all of these programs, for companies such as Grainger who are selling to business buyers. Delivery service choice for e-commerce is a great thing for consumers, but who are the losers here? That would be online retailers with no local inventory and retailers that fail to leverage their local inventory.

  8. Same-Day Delivery Edition of MythBusters

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    Same-day delivery might be a hot topic in the press, but in private, most of the executives I know dismiss it. Having spoken with execs across businesses of every type and size, I hear a few myths repeated consistently.

    Myth 1: Consumers don’t need or want things within a few hours of ordering.

    The myth in this statement is really the phrase “within a few hours of ordering.” When most people think of the future standard for same-day delivery, they think of a service like eBay Now, Google Shopping Express, or Deliv, where the product is delivered within a few hours (not surprising, considering the amount of press these companies have received). The same-day delivery standard will eventually settle into an AM/PM model: order something in the morning, receive it by the following evening, and vice-versa.

    Myth 2: UPS, FedEx, or the US Postal Service are the best options to make same-day deliveries.

    None of these are viable options today. The local delivery and courier industry is a ready-to-go, very experienced, option. It’s full of small, nimble, highly flexible companies that are accustomed to operating nearly 24/7, even on most holidays, and meeting their customers’ needs as opposed to requiring customers to meet their operational practices. And while they’ve historically been involved in business-to-business deliveries and struggled with quality, over the last few years, couriers have gone “mainstream.” Want proof? Just look at the way Amazon has steadily shifted more and more of its next- and two-day deliveries away UPS and FedEx and onto couriers.

    Myth 3: The economics around same-day don’t work because no one will pay for it.

    If you look at the “all-in” (i.e., fulfillment and delivery cost) of a two-hour same-day delivery performed by a courier for a package, it can cost more than $30. However, if you consider the AM/PM service level,  the cost starts to become reasonable. At higher shipment volumes using couriers, the delivery cost component starts approaching $15. And, while it would certainly require a big change in fulfillment strategy and more cost than fulfilling from a DC, companies could reduce their delivery costs even more by shifting next- and two-day volume onto couriers and off UPS and FedEx by using in-market facilities/stores.

    Myth 4: Same-day delivery is something only retailers need to worry about.

    If Amazon is doing same-day delivery, everyone should pay attention. As shown by its rapid expansion across categories from appliances to groceries, Amazon has its eyes on everything anyone buys. That even includes business-to-business purchasing, as illustrated by the company’s launch of in 2012, which set it on a collision course with B2B industrial product distributor Grainger. Retailers AND distributors need to start figuring out a same-day strategy now, or they risk losing sales growth and market share.

    For a more about these myths, and how Amazon is modeling their same-day strategy on Grainger (and why you should too), please read what I wrote for Talking Logistics.

  9. A Proprietary Delivery Network…INSANITY

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    There seem to be daily announcements from technology companies that have local delivery as part of their offerings: Munchery, Postmates, Shyp, Instacart, Sprig, and a host of others. Each of these new companies faces significant challenges when introducing, and cost-effectively scaling, their delivery operations in new markets. Matching up supply (i.e., drivers) with demand (orders) is a challenge and usually results in back-breaking Yelp reviews and disastrous customer challenges. Check out the poor reviews for each of these companies, and more often than not, they’re due to delivery issues. Worse, the cost of recruiting, building, and managing these proprietary delivery networks requires serious capital and clumsy geographical roll-outs.

    Does every new tech company really need to build a proprietary delivery network? A shared delivery network, where multiple shippers access the same set of drivers and carriers, would improve availability, broaden geographical coverage, and dramatically lower costs. This shared supply model emerged in airline ticket shopping (i.e., SABRE), pharmaceutical distribution (e.g., McKesson), office supplies (United Stationers), and other industries as they matured. Why not learn from history and start out on the right foot? I fully expect the shared model to emerge in local delivery (led by Grand Junction); it would free up all these emerging companies to focus on where their value creation really lies: on sales, marketing, and the consumer front-end instead of the back-end logistics.

  10. Odd Bedfellows: Amazon and the Postal Service on Sunday

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    Sunday package delivery is a natural extension for Amazon, but it will be interesting to see if it can grow Sunday delivery with the US Postal Service. Amazon uses local carriers for Sunday delivery programs in some markets, and these carriers are likely to be more cost effective and flexible (with service, labor, and cutoff times) than the USPS in the long term. This move should make other retailers very nervous and ultimately serve as a wake-up call. Amazon has the huge advantage of scale/shipment volume, and local delivery programs like this, combined with its emerging same-day service, will give it even more of a lead. Who else has the volume and leverage to get the USPS to operate on Sundays?

    Amazon is offering Sunday service to solidify its position as the “I want it now” retail option, but it actually has two other motivations. First, if successful, Sunday service will remove huge spikes in its distribution centers. With no outbound delivery available on Sundays, Mondays are huge days in Amazon distribution centers in terms of labor cost and facility activity and capacity. Sunday service will smooth out those spikes.

    Second, Amazon is growing at such a tremendous rate, it will one day in the not-too-distant future outgrow UPS’s capacity or fill one of their vehicles for the day. It is very motivated to develop other carriers, and the USPS is one such alternative. This is also why Amazon is such a heavy user of the local delivery industry. Rewarding the USPS with this Sunday partnership creates goodwill with the USPS, which can be leveraged in the future.

  11. Psst…Amazon Drone Announcement Actually Reveals Weakness

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    Amazon’s recent unveiling of its drone project on 60 Minutes is another indicator of how important same-day delivery is to its go-forward strategy. Amazon views its competition as retailers in the mall, and it’s doing everything it can to eliminate any reason to go to the mall. Sunday delivery, locker pickup boxes, and same-day delivery are all moves to close the gap between shopping online with Amazon and brick-and-mortar shopping. To date, Amazon’s version of same-day has been the AM/PM model, where orders run twice a day from a central hub. This model is certainly low cost, but it does not allow for the premium same-day service levels now being offered by eBay, Google, and others who leverage local store inventory. The drone project is an attempt to fill this gap by skipping the AM/PM model and going directly to buyers for faster delivery.

    Here’s the rub: the majority of online buyers are in urban areas where drone delivery is unrealistic, since remote-controlled helicopters cannot enter a building, take the elevator, and visit the third floor. And this points to one of Amazon’s weaknesses relative to other retailers. Its lack of forward-deployed storefront inventory prevents it from offering very rapid (one-hour) delivery programs to the masses. Amazon’s rural (Kentucky) and distant suburban (Tracy, California, about 40 miles outside the San Francisco Bay Area) distribution centers are fine for AM/PM same-day programs, but this limits who can be served with one-hour-or-less delivery. Traditional retailers already have local inventory in their stores poised for one-hour delivery of e-commerce orders, something Amazon will never have. If successful, this drone project will allow for one-hour-or-less delivery in close proximity to its distribution centers, but, unfortunately for Amazon, the number of people close enough to benefit is a very small percentage of buyers.

    For once, traditional retailers maintain the upper hand when it comes to one-hour delivery, and this drone project, even if successful, will not change that.

  12. What eBay’s Acquisition of Shutl Means

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    Recently, eBay announced the acquisition of UK-based Shutl. We think highly of Tom, who’s the CEO, and Steve and Mike here in the US. They are going to be an important part of the puzzle for eBay as they try to get a piece of the $900 billion online-to-offline buying market, which Forrester Research estimates will account for nearly 50% of retail sales by 2013. Without any inside knowledge as to the reasons behind the acquisition, it appears to be an effort by eBay to establish a brand that will allow them to participate in transactions that do not happen inside the eBay marketplace. This strategy has been wildly successful for PayPal on the payment processing side and may translate well to the same-day delivery side when that market takes off.

    From a local delivery industry standpoint, the acquisition is great news. When Shutl goes live with expansions in the US, they will use local delivery companies to do deliveries that were formerly handled by UPS or were picked up in the store. eBay and Shutl are at the front end of driving more and more volume to the local delivery industry, forcing the industry to improve quality even further. We expect the other large players trying to get into local commerce to move down a similar path.

  13. The Quietest Company in Same-Day Delivery

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    Few people have heard of Grand Junction, and we’re OK with that. We’re the engine behind the emergence of same-day delivery in the US and Canada, and the architect of many recent quality improvements in the local delivery industry that have allowed it to become a true alternative to UPS and FedEx, private fleets, and the trucking industry. Our software-as-a-service (SaaS) platform processes a local delivery every two seconds, 24 hours a day.

    Why are so many using the Grand Junction platform for local delivery? We did the hard work of integrating the entire local delivery industry, whose members are sometimes called “couriers” or “local carriers.” It was hard work, since nearly 60% of the industry runs on proprietary or small providers’ software. These integrations are rich, flexible, ever evolving, and require a lot of effort working one on one with carriers to keep them running. Retailers, 3PLs or “app” start-ups looking to offer same-day, scheduled or 2-person delivery now have a single point to access couriers and roll-out nationwide delivery.

    We’ve also professionalized the local delivery industry, and upped the game in terms of quality, by taking the innovative approach of giving tools to local carriers so that they can self-manage quality, leaving less for the shipper to manage and a better experience for the customer. We believe this approach is a first in supply-chain software. Prior to Grand Junction, local carriers did not have tools such as CRM, GPS tracking, learning management, or alerts to manage by exception. As a result of our efforts and innovations, the local delivery industry, which was formerly the backwater of transportation, is moving up to prime time. OfficeMax, Transforce,  and dozens of other retailers, distributors and 3PLs  are managing or rolling out local delivery programs using Grand Junction’s platform.

    Local carriers are the only game in town if you, as a shipper, are looking to offer same-day, scheduled, two-person, or AM/PM delivery programs, and Grand Junction makes it possible for shippers to roll out these programs quickly and with confidence. This “Last Word on the Last Mile” blog is a place for folks to join in the conversation about local delivery. I promise not to talk much about Grand Junction and will mostly share my 15 years of experience, making observations about this rapidly evolving market as the changes are taking place.